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Volume 6 Number 4, Winter 2009, Pages 1-296   

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Considering the Effectiveness of Recasts on Japanese High School Learners' Learning

    Rintaro Sato

The recast is the most frequently used feedback in classroom settings. Previous research has shown the potential advantages of the recast, although some problems have also been suggested. A measurement that regarded students' corrective responses after receiving recasts as uptake indicated the low effectiveness of recasts as corrective feedback (Lyster, 1998b; Lyster & Ranta, 1997). This study attempts to examine the effects of recasts by using a measurement established after careful analysis of recasts and students' responses. Thirty-two intermediate Japanese high school students and a native speaker of English participated in the study, with the native speaker interviewing the students. In measuring the effectiveness of recasts “no opportunity” and “preferred recasts” were not included in the denominator, meaning that they were not coded as corrective recasts; “later incorporation” and “acknowledgement” were included in the numerator, meaning that they were coded as successful. The effects of recasts were also examined according to the error type, the degree of difference between students' initial utterances and the recasts, and the number of morphemes of recasts. The results showed the relatively high effectiveness of recasts on Japanese high school students' English learning. Discussion of the findings and pedagogical implications in providing recasts is also given.

Keywords: corrective recast, preferred recast, no opportunity, later incorporation, acknowledgement