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Volume 8 Number 3, Autumn 2011, Pages 1-270   


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Developing a Listening Comprehension Problem Scale for University Students' Metacognitive Awareness

    Zhenghou Zhang and Lawrence Jun Zhang


This article reports on the development and validation of a measurement survey tool, the Listening Comprehension Problem Scale (LCPS). LCPS is intended to help identify and evaluate second language (L2) learners' listening comprehension problems while they are listening to oral texts in order to enhance their metacognitive awareness of L2 listening processes. An exploratory factor analysis was performed with a primary sample (N = 360), followed by a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis with a secondary sample (N = 326), resulting in a 15-item survey instrument with robust psychometric properties. The reliability and factorial validity of the instrument are presented along with evidence for a statistically significant correlation between students' responses to the items on the instrument and their L2 listening performance. Future uses for the instrument are also discussed in relation to its potentials in verifying the effectiveness of pedagogies designed to develop L2 learners' listening comprehension skills.

Keywords: cognitive processing, L2, listening comprehension problems, EFL, metacognitive awareness