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Volume 13 Number 2, Summer 2016, Pages 72-161 PDF Download

Examining a Metacognitive Instruction Model

    Ayako Kobayashi

This study aims to examine a metacognitive instruction model conducted in the English as Foreign Language (EFL) classroom and to examine the impact of metacognitive instruction (MI) on students' metacognition, self-efficacy, interaction strategies, and oral communication (OC) by using structural equation modeling (SEM). To examine these impacts, t-tests, a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis, latent variable path analyses, and multi-group comparison analyses were conducted. The participants in this study were Japanese sophomores. They attended an OC course where MI was conducted for three months. They were guided to develop their metacognitive knowledge and self-regulatory strategies regarding OC. The participants' pre- and post-questionnaire answers and their pre- and post-OC test grades were analyzed using SEM. Results indicated that after the intervention the path from strategy use to OC scores was significant. Moreover, two causal relationships were also strengthened: (a) between metacognition and strategy use and (b) between metacognition and self-efficacy. Furthermore, between the pre-group and the post-group, a significantly different path was found: metacognition → self-efficacy. Taken together, these findings suggest that activated metacognition can lead to more effective learning.

Keywords: metacognition, self-efficacy, strategy use, oral communication, EFL learners, higher-order confirmatory factor analysis