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Volume 18 Number 4, Winter 2021, Pages 1071-1525   


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Revised 4/3/2 Task: Fluency Training with Formulaic Language in the EFL Classroom

    Chie Ogawa


The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent additional interventions to the 3/2/1 task help EFL learners develop speaking fluency. Participants were 48 university students in Japan. The 3/2/1 task was implemented 11 times in one 15-week academic semester. The participants were divided into three groups including 1) comparison group, 2) input enhancement group, and 3) input + peer-check group. Speaking data were recorded in weeks 2 and 14, transcribed, and analyzed based on five fluency measures. The pre-/post-recording data showed significant gains in mean length of runs in both experimental groups and in phonation time ratio in the input + peer-check group. Further analyses indicated that the increase in the mean length of runs is associated with the frequency of target formulaic language usage. The implications of fluency promoting instructions in EFL classrooms are discussed.

Keywords: instructed SLA, speaking fluency, task-based language learning, formulaic language, repetition