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Volume 21 Number 1, Spring 2024, Pages 1-269   


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The Interrelationships of L2 Willingness to Communicate, Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Teacher Immediacy

    Xiaolei Zou & Hyesook Park


The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships between Chinese college EFL learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in English, emotional intelligence (EI), foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), and their perceptions of teacher immediacy (TI). The study involved a total of 1040 non-English majors from fifteen universities located in different regions around China. Four questionnaires were employed to collect data. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was utilized via AMOS 21.0 to testify the hypothesized model of the interrelationships between the aforementioned four variables. To be more specific, EI, FLCA, and students' perceptions of TI were hypothesized to have a direct influence on L2 WTC, respectively. Besides, FLCA was also hypothesized to play a mediating role between EI and L2 WTC as well as between TI and L2 WTC. The findings showed that the proposed structural model exhibited a good fit to the collected data. EI, FLCA, and TI proved to have significant and direct predictive effects on L2 WTC. Besides, two indirect paths were also confirmed, from EI and TI to FLCA, leading to L2 WTC. Finally, pedagogical implications to enhance students' L2 WTC were provided. Limitations, along with suggestions for future research were also outlined.

Keywords: L2 willingness to communicate, emotional intelligence, foreign language classroom anxiety, teacher immediacy, Chinese EFL learners